What is pre-diabetes?
- A person who has higher than normal blood sugar but not high enough to be diagnosed as having diabetes
- Blood tests help determine if a person has pre-diabetes
- Persons with pre-diabetes are at risk of developing diabetes
- Diabetes is a lifelong health condition that keeps sugar in the get to the cells that need it.
How do I know if I have pre-diabetes?
- There are usually no symptoms of pre-diabetes.
- The best way to diagnose pre-diabetes is by a blood test:
- A fasting blood sugar (FBS) or a oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
What is a fasting blood sugar (FBS) test?
- This means that a sample of the blood is drawn usually in the morning–after not eating or drinking (except water) for 8-12 hours
- The concentration of glucose or sugar in the blood is examined
- FBS results:
- Pre diabetes=100-125 mg/dl
- Diabetes=126 mg/dl or higher
- Two FBS are required to confirm diagnosis
- A normal FBS is below 100 mg/dl
What is mg/dl?
- This means milligrams/deciliter
- mg/dl is a unit of measurement used to measure blood sugar concentration
- This measurement may also be written as mg%
What is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)?
- A 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test
- This test usually follows an FBS
- The person being tested is given a concentrated sugar drink
- 2 hours after the sugar drink, another blood test sample is drawn to check the level of glucose present in the blood
- OGTT measures fasting blood sugar before and after a person drinks a solution containing concentrated glucose (sugar),
- OGTT results mean pre-diabetes if:
- FBS is 126 mg/dl or less
- And the second test is 140-199 mg/dl two hours after the glucose drink
Who should be screened for pre-diabetes?
- ALL overweight adults and adolescents
- Those with one or more of the following:
- Family history of diabetes
- High bad cholesterol, high triglycerides
- High blood pressure
- History of gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing 9+ pounds
- Being Native American
- Because of the high rates of diabetes in Native Americans all overweight adolescents and adults should be screened yearly for diabetes.
Taking care of pre-diabetes can prevent diabetes
The good news is:
- A person who has pre-diabetes can prevent or delay getting diabetes, if they eat a healthy diet and get daily physical exercise
- Some persons with pre-diabetes may be placed on low dose diabetes medication to help lower the blood sugar